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Applied Patho-physiology, Nephrology, Transplantation and Principles of Urology

Created: 7/4/2005



At entry into the SpR grade, trainees should have knowledge of the principles of basic sciences (anatomy, biochemistry physiology, pharmacology, and pathology). This knowledge would include basic sciences relevant to assessment of critically ill and peri-operative patients. The Senate of Surgery has particularly emphasised the need for a knowledge of applied anatomy. The core knowledge would include:

  • Principles of anaesthesia and local anaesthesia
  • Pain control
  • Applied cardio-respiratory patho-physiology relevant to clinical examination and surgery
  • Patho-physiology in children, the elderly and those with intercurrent disease
  • Knowledge specific to the specialty including regional anatomy, molecular biology, laboratory based scientific research and relevant systemic pathology.

Some of these points are outlined in the sections above with particular reference to:

  • Normal structure (macroscopic and microscopic), physiology and function, including relevant neurology, neuropharmacology, biochemistry, and cellular and molecular biology
  • Disordered function - aetiology, pathophysiological response (at macroscopic, microscopic and molecular level) and local, distant and systemic consequences
  • In addition, a knowledge of statistics and trial design, and the scientific principles of surgical and non surgical treatment of urological disorders
  • Basic principles of cell biology, cell structure and biochemistry
  • Principles of renal physiology, effects of disease, renal failure
  • Common metabolic problems seen in urological patients
  • Principles of stone formation
  • Structure and function of the lower urinary tract
  • Male sexual function, androgen receptor, prostate physiology
  • Embryology
  • Energy sources
  • General principles of tumour biology applied to urology
  • Embryology and intersex
  • Principles of immunology
  • Clinical trials and screening
  • Principles of wound healing, inflammation and coagulation

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