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Created: 10/12/2007
Updated: 11/1/2008


Concerning antibiotics

A trimethoprim
B gentamicin
C amoxicillin
D nitrofurantoin
E ciprofloxacin
F cefotaxime
G augmentin
H cefuroxime

1 Acts on the alpha subunit of DNA gyrase
2 If used in pregnancy carries a risk of teratogenesis
3 Is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor
4 Is a second generation cephalosporin
5 Binds to the 30S subunit of ribosomal RNA

The life-cycle of bilharzia

A Sporocysts
B Proceroid
C Schistosomule
D Cercaria
E Coracidia
F Pleroceroid
G Miracidia

6 Enter fresh water snails and develop into sporocysts
7 Produced after cercariae shed their tales
8 Migrate to the liver
9 Produced from sporocysts
10 Released from eggs laid by the adult flukes

Infections and inflammatory conditions

A Malacoplakia
C Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis
E Emphysematous pyelonephritis
F Acute pyelonephritis
G Pyonephrosis
H Perinephric abscess

11 von-Hansemann cells containing Michaelis-Gutmann bodies which are pathognomic
12 Often associated with underlying renal calculi
13 Most commonly caused by Proteus
14 Usually occurs in diabetics
15 Associated with macrophage dysfunction

Classification of uropathogens

A Gram-positive cocci
B Trematode
C Gram-negative cocci
D Tapeworm
E Nematode
F Gram-positive anaerobic bacilli
G Gram-negative aerobic bacilli
H Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli

16 Echinococcus granulosus
17 Mycobacterium tuberculosis
18 Lactobacillus acidophilus
19 Enterococcus faecalis
20 Pseudomonas


1 E Ciprofloxacin acts on the alpha subunit of DNA gyrase to cause DNA unwinding
2 A
3 A
4 H cefuroxime is a 2nd generation cephalosporin, cefotaxime is a 3rd generation cephalosporin
5 B gentamicin blocks protein synthesis by binding to the 30S subunit of ribosomal RNA

6 G
7 C
8 C
9 D
10 G

Miracidia eggs enter fresh water, swell and release miracidia larvae. These enter fresh water snails to produce sporocysts. Each sporocyst releases 200-400 cercaria which are infected minature worms with a forked tail. The cercariae penetrate unbroken skin and become shistosomules after shedding their tales. They travel to the liver to mature. Mature adults then couple and migrate to vesical veins. Here they lay eggs which penetrate the bladder and enter the urine.

12C XGP is usually (but not always) associated with underlying calculi
13C XGP can also be caused by E-coli but Proteus is more common
14E The high glucose levels in diabetics provide an ideal environment for fermentation by enterobacteria with the production of CO2. XGP can also occur in diabetics
15A Macrophages are unable to completely lyse bacteria which are phagocytosed in malacoplakia


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