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Imaging and Technology MCQ I

Created: 2/1/2008
Updated: 11/1/2008

1 What is the wavelength of a holmium:YAG laser?

A 532 nm
B 2140 nm
C 980 nm
D 1650nm
E 1860 nm

2 Which of the following is not important in determining radio-sensitivity?

A DNA repair
B Re-oxygenation
C Re-accumulation
D Re-assortment
E Re-population

3 What is the unit for the absorbed dose of radiation?

A Gray
B Sievert
C Rad
D Roentgen
E becquerels

4 Which of the following detects protein on dipstik urinalysis?

A Peroxidase
B Red azo dye
C Indoxyl
D Tetrabromophenol blue dye
E Diazonium salt

5 What is the approximate mortality rate associated with non-ionic contrast media?

A 1/200,000
B 1/100,000
C 1/50,000
D 1/25,000
E 1/10,000

6 Which of the following types of diuretic renogram curve refers to a system which is dilated without obstruction?

A Type IV
B Type IIIa
C Type IIIb
D Type II
E Type I 

7 When referring to adrenaline what does a 1 in 10,000 solution equate to?

A 10 mg per 10 ml
B 1 mg per ml
C 10 mg per ml
D 0.1mg per ml
E 1mg per 100ml

8 What frequency of transducer is used during transrectal ultrasound?

A 3.5 MHz
B 4.5 MHz
C 5.5 MHz
D 6.5 MHz
E 7.5 MHz

9 What is the "French" or "Charriere" guage equal to?

A Circumference in mm
B Circumference multiplied by 3 in mm
C Diameter in mm
D Circumference in cm
E Diameter multiplied by 3 in mm

10 Which of the following statements regarding JJ stents is correct?

A Stents aid stone passage
B Stents increase intrarenal pressures
C A nephrostomy is better for the relief of an obstructing stone with infection
D Stents lower intrarenal pressure
E Stents are extremely effective at relieving obstruction from extrinsic compression

11 What stage of chronic kidney disease has a patient with an estimated GFR of 26ml/min/1.73m2?

A Stage 4
B Stage 1
C Stage 3
D Stage 5
E Stage 2

12 What is the 1 year graft survival following living-donor kidney transplantation?

A 95%
B 90%
C 80%
D 70%
E 65%

13 What is the most common new tumour in recipients after transplantation?

A Renal
B Lung
C Lymphoproliferative
D Skin
E Cervical

14 Which of the following immunosuppresive agents is associated with diabetes?

A Mycophenolate mofetil
B Cyclosporine A
C Tacrolimus
D Azathioprine
E Sirolimus

15 What is the radiation dose in mSv associated with a CTKUB?

A 1.0
B 2.5
C 3.0
D 4.7
E 10

16 Which of the following best describes the thin descending limb of the loop of Henle?

A Impermeable to water
B Permeable to water and less permeable to sodium, chloride and urea
C Impermeable to water, highly permeable to sodium and chloride and slightly permeable to urea
D Permeable to water, sodium, chloride and urea
E Impermeable to water and urea with sodium and chloride actively reabsorbed

17 What is the typical Hounsfield unit for fat on CT?

A +300
B +40
C 0
D -50
E -1000

18 Which drug trial phase primarily assesses the safety of a drug?

A Phase IV
B Phase III
C Phase II
D Phase I
E Phase 0

19 How is leucocyte esterase detected by dipstik urinalysis?

A Peroxidase
B Red azo dye
C The production of indoxyl and oxidation of a diazonium salt
D Tetrabromophenol blue dye
E Double oxidation reaction

20 What is the normal amount of protein excreted by the kidney?

A 50-80 mg/day
B 80-150 mg/day
C 150-200 mg/day
D 200-230 mg/day
E 230-250 mg/day


The "four R's" which determine radiosensitivity are repair, re-oxygenation, re-assortment and re-population

In SI units, the activity of a radioactive source is measured in becquerels (symbol Bq).  The absorbed dose of ionizing radiation is measured in grays (symbol Gy) where one gray is equal to one joule of energy being imparted to one kilogram of matter (the rad is the previously used unit). The dose equivalent, which is a measure of the effects of radiation on living organisms, is measured in sieverts (symbol Sv)

Type IV Delayed double peak pattern (Homsey)
Type IIIa Dilated without obstruction
Type IIIb Equivocal
Type II Obstructed
Type I Normal

7D 1 in 10,000 or 1mg per 10ml adrenaline solution is often used during cardiace arrest in prepared syringes. A 1 in 1000 or 1mg per ml adrenaline solution is often used IM for anaphylactic reactions.

UrologyUK comment: Although this seems like a fairly non-urological question there are a significant number of everyday clinical MCQ's and EMQ's in the exam.

8E A 7.5Mhz biplane probe is used for TRUS

The French guage is equal to the diameter of the tube multiplied by 3 in mm, not as is often thought the circumference in mm. However, remember that the circumference is diameter multiplied by Pi (3.14) so it is nearly correct!! 

Stents paralyse peristalsis and therefore do not aid stone passage. They increase intrarenal pressures. Pearle, M; J Urol 1998 demonstrated that there was no difference in recovery between patients treated with nephrostomy vs JJ stent. JJ stents are less effective at relieving obstruction from extrinsic compression.


Stages of CKD

CKD Stage

Description (eGFR ml/min/1.73m2)

Stage 1

Normal eGFR (>90) With other evidence of kidney damage*

Stage 2

eGFR 60 – 90 With other evidence of kidney damage*

Stage 3

eGFR 30-59

Stage 4

eGFR 15 – 29

Stage 5

eGFR < 15

* Evidence of chronic kidney damage includes: persistent microalbuminuria or proteinuria,

1 year graft survival for living donor nephrectomy is 95% with HLA-identical siblings, 90% for 1-haplotype-identical related donor and 80% for cadaveric kidneys

The approximate distribution of new cancers is renal 5%, lung 5%, lymphoproliferative 11%, skin 40% and cervical 4%

Tacrolimus is nephrotoxic and in approximately 20% of patients causes diabetes


The thin descending limb is best described by B, the thin ascending limb is best described by C and the thick ascending limb best described by E

Substance                      Hounsfield Unit
Air                                 -1000
Fat                                 -50
Water                              0
Soft tissue (eg muscle)    +40
Calculus                         +100 to +400
Bone                              +1000

Phase IV - Post-launch safety surveillance
Phase III - Randomised control trial
Phase II - Assesses how well the drug works as well as continued safety
Phase I - Assesses safety
Phase 0 - First human trial - does it behave in humans as expected

Leucocyte esterase catalyses the production of indoxyl which oxidises a diazonium salt leading to a colour change 

20B Normal excretion is 80-150 mg/day

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